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Periodontal disease and systemic health: An update on the current consensus

Juliette Reeves discusses the current consensus and recommendations on periodontal disease and systemic health.

Over the last ten years the impact of periodontal disease on systemic health has been the focus of intense interest, with research investigating associations between periodontal inflammation and cardiovascular disease (Meale, 1999), diabetes (Saito et al, 2004) and adverse pregnancy outcomes (Offenbacher et al, 1996). More recently further associations have been suggested with systemic diseases and conditions that include rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (dePablo, Dietrich and mcAlindon, 2008) (Detert et al, 2010) impaired lung function (COPD) (Garcia, 2001), chronic kidney diseases (CKD) (Fisher and Taylor, 2009), cognitive impairment (Sparks Stein et al, 2012), obesity (Chaffee and Weston, 2010), cancer (Michaud et al, 2008) and osteoporosis (Megson, Kapellas and Bartold, 2010). 

The association between periodontal inflammation and systemic disease has yet to be fully understood. There are a number of possible mechanisms whereby periodontal diseases may induce a remote inflammatory response or non oral manifestation of oral diseases, these include bacteraemia and the host response (inflammation injury).

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